Sindarin Verbal Conjugation Patterns
 
A theory based on available material and scholarly assertions



'primal stem' presentpastfuture-conditionalactive & passive imperativeparticiplesinfinitives
Derived,
Prefixed
derived
oltha-
(pres: ")
 
olthon  "I dream"
oltho-g/-dh  (2 sg.)
oltha  "he dreams"
olthannen or elthennin¹
olthanne-g/-dh  (2 sg.)
olthant  "he dreamed"
olthathon  "I shall dream"
olthatho-g/-dh  (2 sg.)
olthatha  "he shall dream"
oltho!  "(may ..) dream!"
oltho den  "let .. be dreamed"
 
olthol
olthan(nen)
elthiel
oltho
olthad
 
Root I
 
 
car-
(pres: ceri-)
 
cerin  "I do, carry out"
ceri-g/-dh  (2 sg.)
câr  "he does"
agoren  "I did"
agore-g/-dh  (2 sg.)
agor²  "he did"
cerithon  "I shall do"
ceritho-g/-dh  (2 sg.)
ceritha  "he shall do"
caro!  "(may ..) carry out!"
caro den  "let .. be done"
 
carel
carnen
córiel
ceri
cared
 
Root II
 
 
haf-
(pres: hevi-)
 
hevin  "I sit"
hevi-g/-dh  (2 sg.)
hâf /haːv/  "he sits"
hemmin  "I sat"
hemmi-g/-dh  (2 sg.)
hamp, havant  "he sat"³
hevithon  "I shall sit"
hevitho-g/-dh  (2 sg.)
hevitha  "he shall sit"
havo!  "(may ..) sit!"

 
havel
hammen
hóviel
hevi
haved
 
Prefixed
root

 
tre-nar-
(pres: treneri-)
 
trenerin  "I narrate"
treneri-g/-dh  (2 sg.)
trenar  "he narrates"
trenoren  "I narrated"
trenore-g/-dh  (2 sg.)
trenor  "he narrated"
trenerithon  "I shall narrate"
treneritho-g/-dh  (2 sg.)
treneritha  "he shall narrate"
trenaro!  "(may ..) narrate!"
trenaro den  "let .. be narrated"
 
trenarel
trenarnen
trenóriel
treneri
trenared
 
Mixed
[Etym:360;
VT45:29]
sog+a-
(pres: segi-)
 
segin  "I drink"
segi-g/-dh  (2 sg.)
sôg  "he drinks"
sogannen or segennin¹
soganne-g/-dh  (2 sg.)
sogant, sunc  "he drank"
segithon  "I shall drink"
segitho-g/-dh  (2 sg.)
segitha  "he shall drink"
sogo!  "(may ..) drink!"
sogo den  "let .. be drank"
 
sogol or sogel
sungen
súgiel
sogo
sogad
 
Irregular
 
[PE17:148]
gwa-
(pres: gwae-)
 
gwaen  "I go, fare"
gwae-g/-dh  (2 sg.)
gwâ  "he goes"
anwen  "I went"
anwe-g/-dh  (2 sg.)
anu (anw)  "he went"
*gwaethon  "I shall go"
*gwaetho-g/-dh  (2 sg.)
*gwaetha  "he shall go"
*gaw! gwanno!  "(may ..) go!"

 
*gwaul
gwan-wen, -nen
*góniel
?gwae
gwaed
 


      ¹  Cf. rithessin (*"I strived") < rithas, PE17:167 and the reading "sogennen", Etym:388.
      ²  With original stop consonant stems, a nasally affixed past formation appears (PE17:42, 131): adhanc "he slew" (< DAK/NDAK), *ebent "he spoke" (< KWET).
      ³  We may also expect *achof, cf. aw "he had" (< ahawv < *asām-) from SAM, a similar nasal root (PE17:173).


Sami Paldanius, 2010
Acknowledging the work of Christopher Gilson, Carl F. Hostetter, Patrick H. Wynne, David Salo, Helge Fauskanger & Thorsten Renk